Radioactive contamination steaming out the destroyed reactors up into the air, that doesn’t get rained out in storms across the Pacific and North America, stays suspended for a time in the troposphere, the lowest part of the atmosphere. This floating radiation is ripe for chemtrail molecules’ “accumulation mode” in which numerous smaller particles stick to a larger particle until there are so many Fukushima radionuclides stuck to the conglomerated particle that it floats down from the sky.
Whatever the reason for the massive spraying of aerosols in the atmosphere, be they made of aluminum, barium or some other exotic blend of heavy metals or chemicals, these plainly visible gas trails and their resultant cloud cover may be inadvertently nuking us. Fukushima radiation coming down in chemtrail fallout is a situation that even the faceless people behind the spraying in the first place may not be aware of.
According to a 2007 University of Tennessee Department of Nuclear Engineering health physics report, “radioactive particulate matter is carried in air within dust particles.” Once a particle or aerosol is suspended in the air at any elevation it can be removed, altered or destroyed but can’t remain in the atmosphere indefinitely, according to Dr. James Dorsey of the University of Manchester where Dorsey earned a PhD in Atmospheric Physics in 2002. “Clearly the lifetime of any particular particle depends on its size and location,” Dorsey wrote. “Larger aerosol settle out of the atmosphere very quickly under gravity, and some surfaces are more efficient at capturing aerosol than others.”
Aerosols come from being ejected into the atmosphere, like Fukushima Dai-ichi’s continued gas escape of radioactive gas from the destroyed reactors, which joins other “primary aerosols” like volcanic emissions, sea spray, and wind-blown dust. “Secondary aerosols” form as atmospheric gases react and condense and by gas-to-particle conversion as vapors cool. Rainout occurs when an aerosol acts like nuclei for cloud droplets to form around and fall from the sky. Washout indicates an aerosol being knocked out of the sky by a preformed water droplet.
Both rainouts and washouts cleanse the troposphere of significant amounts of Fukushima radiation. The radiation doesn’t disappear, however, and exists as long as its half-life dictates, a half-life being the amount of time it takes for the radionuclide’s mass (weight) to decrease by half. After ten half-lives, a radionuclide’s mass has essentially been reduced to nothing from ionization.
In dry environments, where very small radioactive particles have no effective path to deposition over land or water bodies, nanoparticles join together in a process known as coagulation. These tiny particles, smaller than 100 nanometers, collide into each other due to forces that include electrostatic attraction, phoretic effects like that of heavier particles on lighter ones and transport of a particle due to temperature gradients where the particle moves from a high temperature to a low one. There is also Brownian diffusion which is the effect of thermal random motion on these particles.
Though complicated, these methods are how particles combine and fall to earth. Indeed, the drier the environment, the easier it is for particles to stick together because they don’t have to ‘squeeze’ the water molecules out first to join together. “In the kinetic regime, coagulation is always enhanced due to the absence of viscous forces,” according to Dorsey. That means Fukushima fallout would better bind with spewing aerosol trails better in drier climes like the desert than wet ones.
The actual method of dispersing the aerosols into the atmosphere by jet nozzles also helps the process – the gas literally smacks into the Fukushima fallout and binds to it. “Coagulation is also enhanced in shearing or turbulent flows, as these induce fast relative particle motion,” wrote Dorsey.
Radioactive particulate matter that exploded out of Fukushima the day of the meltdowns and still escaping quickly dispersed over the entire Northern Hemisphere according to an October 20, 2011 study led by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) in Kjeller, Norway. The report, Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition, relied on confidential Japanese measurements of Cesium-137 deposition in Japan in 46 of Japan’s 47 prefectures.
“The plume was also dispersed quickly over the entire Northern Hemisphere, first reaching North America on 15 March,” the report said. (EnviroReporter.com began its 24/7 online Radiation Station Santa Monica the same day.) The study estimated that 19 percent of the total fallout from the disaster’s first five weeks until April 20, 2011 landed on Japan, 79 percent on the Pacific Ocean and “only 2 percent of the total fallout were deposited on land areas other than Japan.”
Unsound science undoes much of the good work of comprehensive studies with a bias and this report is no exception. Conceptually, it isn’t too hard to figure out that is impossible to estimate these amounts when the meltdowns are ongoing, the melted cores call “corium” unaccounted for and rarely discussed by the reactor owners and Japanese government, and hundreds of thousands of tons of radioactive rubble are being incinerated all over Japan to get rid of the stuff causing a second huge source of emissions. There is no way to quantify that other than to say it is an astronomical amount of goo.
But even mistakes don’t render this report entirely unusable. It reveals that the entire Xenon-133 inventory of radiation was released during the meltdowns, an amount 2.5 times the Xe-133 spewed into the Ukrainian countryside by the Chernobyl meltdown of 1986. Even though the study relied on the June 2011 Japanese government report that first admitted there were three total meltdowns, a report that subsequently was found to have grossly underestimated radiation escaping Fukushima, the NILU study found that at least 42 percent of the amount of Cesium-137 that blew out of Chernobyl had already escaped the Japanese reactor complex hard on the Pacific Ocean. Clearly by now, much more Cs-137 has come out of the battered Fukushima Dai-ichi complex.
The report said that even with the heavy “scavenging” of Cs-137 by precipitation, the airborne goo had made its way to the Southern Hemisphere. The main brunt was and continues to be north of the Equator. “A first radionuclide cloud ahead of the main plume was transported quickly across the North Pacific at low altitudes in a steady westerly flow and arrived in western North America on 15 March,” the study said. “The main plume was at that time still far from the coast… south of 40 [degrees north], the plume was transported near the surface, while further north it had been lifted to the middle and upper troposphere.”
The troposphere is the Earth’s lowest part of the atmosphere and contains 80 percent of the entire atmosphere’s weight, or mass, and 99 percent of its aerosols and water vapor. What goes up in the troposphere must come down, and fairly quickly, which seems to contradict continued small amounts of radioactive fallout released from the 521 above ground nuclear bomb detonations that took place from 1945 to 1980. Much of that radiation, however, was literally blown into the stratosphere where it still comes down from today. The Fukushima radiation plume, even on the first day of the meltdowns and the explosion of several reactors, did not get propelled into the stratosphere which did, however, limit its vertical height.
A 1989 EPA radiation risk assessment report showed that “[R]adionuclides, released in the form of particulates or gases, form a plume that disperses down wind. These radionuclides in the air can directly affect people in two ways: through external dose caused by photon exposure from the plume, or through internal dose resulting from radionuclide inhalation. As the airborne radionuclides move from the point of release, they (especially those in particulate form) deposit on ground surfaces and vegetation as a result of dry deposition and precipitation scavenging. Photon radiation from the radionuclides deposited on the ground contributes to the external doses. Finally, small fractions of the radionuclides deposited on plant surfaces and agricultural land enter the food chains, concentrating in produce and in animal products such as milk and meat. Consumption of contaminated foodstuff then contributes to the internal doses of radiation to individuals.”
While the EPA summation is accurate and its information may seem obvious to experienced fallout experts, aerosol trails streaked across the skies certainly weren’t taken into consideration because they didn’t exist in the multitudes that they have from at least the mid-1990s. The term “chemtrail” was first coined by journalist William Thomas in 1997. Nevertheless, what the extensive EPA analysis confirmed was that radionuclides like Cesium-137 released like those that have been from Fukushima Dai-ichi behave in identifiable patterns.
“As radionuclides in the plume are dispersed, their activity is depleted by dry deposition and precipitation scavenging,” the study noted. “Depletion due to deposition generally does not cause more than half of the released activity to be removed at a distance of 80 [kilometers]. Depletion by precipitation scavenging occurs only during periods of precipitation.”
Nevertheless, there are other ways to get the Fuku-goo cloud to fallout. A new NILU study adds cloud scavenging and dry deposition to the mechanics of getting goo to ground. The Norwegian team worked with the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics in Vienna, Austria to produce a May 14 report for the European Geosciences Union called Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I during the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident – a constraint for air quality and climate models.
Though once again hampered by mistakes and misassumptions, the report is certainly useful. It shows how Fukushima Cesium-137 in the troposphere is captured and coagulated in “accumulation-mode” before falling out. “Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact,” the study reported. “137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition.”
The May 14 NILU study found “For the emissions from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011, there is direct evidence that the 137Cs was attached to aerosols in the size range 0.1–2 μm [micrometer – 1 millionth of a meter] diameter,” and that “Once attached, 137Cs shares the fate of these aerosols, which grow by coagulation with other particles during transport … and are removed by wet and dry deposition. Thus, the removal rates of 137Cs should be representative for the AM aerosols in general.”
The study’s modeling, while wanting, relied on an impressive set of data from 60 particulate monitoring stations worldwide that delivered data to the International Data Centre of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization in Vienna, Austria. The radiations stations have high-volume aerosol samplers that test 20,000 cubic meters of air over a 24 hour period collecting particulate matter. High-resolution germanium detectors (of the sort that EnviroReporter.com is seeking to obtain for Radiation Station Santa Monica) then identify the radionuclides present at even low concentrations.
While NILU examined both Iodine-131 and Cesium-137, the former has a half-life of 8.02 days and, absent continuing nuclear fission at the meltdowns site which is still a constant threat, has effectively ionized itself out of existence. The Cs-137 is an entirely different matter since it stays in the environment for centuries and has entered the food chain as previously reported in this article. “[Cesium-137] is released both as gas and in particulate form,” the study said. “The gaseous release fraction is typically as high as the particulate fraction. During transport, there is an exchange between the gas and particle phases.”
Using co-located measurements for radionuclides, NILU determined that the removal times for Cs-137 from the atmosphere range from 8.8 to 18.1 days, more than enough time for it to travel to North America and beyond.
“The aerosol lifetimes vary regionally and are generally longest in dry or cold regions” the report stated which is bad news in the usually dry areas of the West and Southwest United States like, for example, Death Valley. With the advent of aerosol spraying in the national park as witnessed by this reporter and his editor (and wife), barriers to the Fukushima goo-laden jet stream moisture needed previously to create fallout through wet deposition have been inadvertently overcome as chemtrails scavenge the Cs-137 creating fallout in these arid regions. EnviroReporter.com has seen these aerosol trails spread out in Death Valley and create the sort of bluish haze one associates with the polluted climes of Southern California.
Plus, the longer the Cs-137 can literally hang around the worse it is because it can concentrate further in a stationary high-pressure zone upping the possibility of being scavenged by an aerosol trail and any resultant man-made cloud particulates. NILU does admit Fukushima Cesium-137 hang time could be longer. “[T]he comparison between our results and modeled aerosol lifetimes may still indicate that the lifetimes in the aerosol models are too short,” the report concluded. “Our results are highly sensitive to possible late emissions of radionuclides. However, there is no evidence for such late emissions, neither in our data nor in the existing literature on the FD-NPP accident.”